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USMLE Content

By Med stu - Saturday, September 8, 2012 No Comments
Something interesting I came across thought i share, its the content that is suppose to be tested in USMLE step 1

obtained from : USMLE Step 1 website

Content Outlines



  1. General Principles
    Biochemistry and molecular biology
    • gene expression: DNA structure, replication, exchange, and epigenetics
    • gene expression: transcription
    • gene expression: translation, post-translational processing, modifications, and disposition of proteins (degradation), including protein/glycoprotein synthesis, intra/extracellular sorting, and processes/functions related to Golgi complex and rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • structure and function of proteins and enzymes
    • energy metabolism

    Biology of cells
    • adaptive cell responses and cellular homeostasis
    • intracellular accumulations
    • mechanisms of injury and necrosis
    • apoptosis
    • mechanisms of dysregulation
      • cell biology of cancer, including genetics of cancer
      • general principles of invasion and metastasis, including cancer staging
    • cell/tissue structure, regulation, and function, including cytoskeleton, organelles, glycolipids, channels, gap junctions, extracellular matrix, and receptors
    Human development and genetics
    • principles of pedigree analysis
      • inheritance patterns
      • occurrence and recurrence risk determination
    • population genetics: Hardy-Weinberg law, founder effects, mutation-selection equilibrium
    • principles of gene therapy
    • genetic testing and counseling
    • genetic mechanisms
    Biology of tissue response to disease
    • acute inflammatory responses (patterns of response)
      • acute inflammation and mediator systems
      • vascular response to injury, including mediators
      • principles of cell adherence and migration
      • microbicidal mechanisms and tissue injury
      • clinical manifestations
    • chronic inflammatory responses
    • reparative processes
      • wound healing, hemostasis, and repair; thrombosis, granulation tissue, angiogenesis, fibrosis, scar/keloid formation
      • regenerative processes
    Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental
    • progression through the life cycle, including birth through senescence
      • cognitive, language, motor skills, and social and interpersonal development
      • sexual development
      • influence of developmental stage on physician-patient interview
    • psychological and social factors influencing patient behavior
      • personality traits or coping style, including coping mechanisms
      • psychodynamic and behavioral factors, related past experience
      • family and cultural factors, including socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and gender
      • adaptive behavioral responses to stress and illness
      • maladaptive behavioral responses to stress and illness
      • interactions between the patient and the physician or the health care system
      • patient adherence (general and adolescent)
    • patient interviewing, consultation, and interactions with the family
      • establishing and maintaining rapport
      • data gathering
      • approaches to patient education
      • enticing patients to make lifestyle changes
      • communicating bad news
      • "difficult" interviews
      • multicultural ethnic characteristics
    • medical ethics, jurisprudence, and professional behavior
      • consent and informed consent to treatment
      • physician-patient relationships
      • death and dying
      • birth-related issues
      • issues related to patient participation in research
      • interactions with other health professionals, including impaired physician and patient safety
      • sexuality and the profession; other "boundary" issues
      • ethics of managed care
      • organization and cost of health care delivery
    Multisystem processes
    • nutrition
      • generation, expenditure, and storage of energy at the whole-body level
      • assessment of nutritional status across the life span, including calories, protein, essential nutrients, hypoalimentation
      • functions of nutrients
      • protein-calorie malnutrition
      • vitamin deficiencies and/or toxicities (including megaloblastic anemia with other findings)
      • mineral deficiencies and toxicities
    • temperature regulation
    • adaptation to environmental extremes, including occupational exposures
      • physical and associated disorders (including temperature, radiation, burns, decreased atmospheric pressure, high-altitude sickness, increased water pressure)
      • chemical (including gases, vapors, smoke inhalation, agricultural hazards, organic solvents, heavy metals, principles of poisoning and therapy)
    • fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance disorders
    • inherited metabolic disorders, including disorders related to amino acids, purines, porphyrins, carnitine, fatty acids, and carbohydrates
    Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic processes
    • general principles
      • pharmacokinetics: absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, dosage intervals
      • mechanisms of drug action, structure-activity relationships (including anticancer drugs)
      • concentration- and dose-effect relationships, types of agonists and antagonists and their actions
      • individual factors altering pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics
      • mechanisms of drug adverse effects, overdosage, toxicology
      • mechanisms of drug interactions
      • regulatory issues
      • signal transduction, including structure/function of all components of signal transduction pathway such as receptors, ligands
      • cell cycle/cell cycle regulation
    Microbial biology and infection
    • microbial identification and classification, including principles, microorganism identification, and nonimmunologic lab diagnosis
    • bacteria
      • structure
      • processes, replication, and genetics
      • oncogenesis
      • antibacterial agents
    • viruses
      • structure
      • processes, replication, and genetics
      • oncogenesis
      • antiviral agents
    • fungi
      • structure
      • processes, replication, and genetics
      • antifungal agents
    • parasites
      • structure
      • processes, replication, and genetics
      • antiparasitic agents
    • prions
    • epidemiology, outbreaks, and infection control
    Quantitative methods
    • fundamental concepts of measurement
      • scales of measurement
      • distribution, central tendency, variability, probability
      • disease prevalence and incidence
      • disease outcomes
      • associations
      • health impact
      • sensitivity, specificity, predictive values
    • fundamental concepts of study design
      • types of experimental studies
      • types of observational studies
      • sampling and sample size
      • subject selection and exposure allocation
      • outcome assessment
      • internal and external validity
    • fundamental concepts of hypothesis testing and statistical inference
      • confidence intervals
      • statistical significance and Type I error
      • statistical power and Type II error

  2. Normal processes
    • embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes
    • organ structure and function
    • cell/tissue structure and function
      • production and function of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, O2 and CO2 transport, transport proteins
      • production and function of platelets
      • production and function of coagulation and fibrinolytic factors
    • repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life
    Abnormal processes
    • infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders
      • infections of the blood, reticuloendothelial system, and endothelial cells
      • autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases
      • anemia of chronic disease
      • non-immunologically mediated transfusion complications, transplant rejection
    • traumatic and mechanical injury
    • neoplastic disorders (including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, dysproteinemias, amyloidosis)
    • metabolic and regulatory disorders, including acquired
      • nutritional anemias
      • cythemia
      • hemorrhagic and hemostatic disorders
      • bleeding secondary to platelet disorders and disorders of primary hemostasis
    • vascular and endothelial disorders
    • systemic disorders affecting the hematopoietic and lymphoreticular system
    • idiopathic disorders
    • degenerative disorders
    • drug-induced adverse effects on the hematopoietic and lymphoreticular systems
    • congenital and genetic disorders affecting the hematopoietic and lymphoreticular systems
    Principles of therapeutics
    • mechanisms of action and use of drugs for treatment of disorders of the hematopoietic system
      • blood and blood products
      • treatment of anemia, drugs stimulating erythrocyte production
      • drugs stimulating leukocyte production
      • anticoagulants, thrombolytic drugs
      • antiplatelet drugs
      • antimicrobials and antiparasitics
      • antineoplastic and immunosuppressive drugs in the clinical context of disease
    • other therapeutic modalities
    Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental
    • emotional and behavioral factors
    • influence on person, family, and society
    • occupational and other environmental risk factors
    • gender and ethnic factors

  3. Normal processes
    • embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes, including neural tube derivatives, cerebral ventricles, neural crest derivatives
    • organ structure and function
      • spinal cord, including gross anatomy, blood supply, and spinal reflexes
      • brain stem
      • brain, including gross anatomy and blood supply; cognition, language, memory; hypothalamic function; limbic system and emotional behavior; circadian rhythms and sleep; control of eye movement
      • sensory systems, including proprioception, pain, vision, hearing, balance, taste, and olfaction
      • motor systems, including brain and spinal cord, basal ganglia, and cerebellum
      • autonomic nervous system
      • peripheral nerve
    • cell/tissue structure and function
      • axonal transport
      • excitable properties of neurons, axons and dendrites, including channels
      • synthesis, storage, release, reuptake, and degradation of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators
      • pre- and postsynaptic receptor interactions, trophic and growth factors
      • brain metabolism
      • glia, myelin
      • brain homeostasis: blood-brain barrier; cerebrospinal fluid formation and flow; choroid plexus
    • repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life, including definition of brain death
    Abnormal processes
    • infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders (including demyelinating disorders, myasthenia gravis and muscle channelopathies, and disorders of the eye and ear)
    • traumatic and mechanical disorders
    • neoplastic disorders, including primary and metastatic
    • metabolic and regulatory disorders
    • vascular disorders
    • systemic disorders affecting the nervous system
    • idiopathic disorders affecting the nervous system
    • congenital and genetic disorders, including metabolic
    • degenerative disorders
    • paroxysmal disorders
    • disorders of special senses
    • psychopathologic disorders, processes, and their evaluation
      • early-onset disorders
      • disorders related to substance use
      • schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
      • mood disorders
      • anxiety disorders
      • somatoform disorders
      • personality disorders
      • physical and sexual abuse of children, adults, and elders
      • other disorders
    • drug-induced adverse effects on the central and peripheral nervous system
    • neurologic pain syndromes
    Principles of therapeutics
    • mechanisms of action and use of drugs for treatment of disorders of the nervous system
      • anesthetics
      • hypnotic sedatives
      • psychopharmacologic agents
      • anticonvulsants
      • analgesics
      • stimulants, amphetamines
      • antiparkinsonian drugs and drugs for dementia, Alzheimer type; multiple sclerosis; and restless legs syndrome
      • skeletal muscle relaxants, botulinum toxin
      • neuromuscular junction agonists and antagonists
      • antiglaucoma drugs
      • drugs used to decrease intracranial pressure
      • antimigraine agents
      • drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system, including all general autonomic pharmacology
      • antimicrobials, antineoplastic drugs, and antiparasitics
      • drugs used to treat cerebrovascular disorders
      • treatment for substance abuse disorders
    • other therapeutic modalities
    Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental
    • emotional and behavioral factors
    • influence on person, family, and society
    • occupational and other environmental risk factors
    • gender and ethnic factors

  4. Normal processes
    • embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes
    • organ structure and function
    • cell/tissue structure and function, including barrier functions, thermal regulation, eccrine function
    • repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life or ethnicity
    • skin defense mechanisms and normal flora
    Abnormal processes
    • infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders
      • bacterial infections
      • viral infections
      • fungal infections, including mycoses, dermatophytosis
      • parasitic infections, ectoparasitic infestations, and mycobacterial infections
      • immune and autoimmune disorders
    • traumatic and mechanical disorders (including thermal injury, decubitus ulcers, effects of ultraviolet light and radiation)
    • neoplastic disorders
      • keratinocytes
      • melanocytes
      • vascular neoplasms
      • other
    • metabolic, regulatory, and structural disorders
    • vascular disorders
    • systemic disorders affecting the skin
    • idiopathic disorders
    • degenerative disorders
    • drug-induced adverse effects on the skin and related connective tissue
    • congenital and genetic disorders affecting the skin and related connective tissue
    Principles of therapeutics
    • mechanisms of action and use of drugs for treatment of disorders of the skin and connective tissue
      • anti-inflammatory agents
      • emollients
      • sunscreen
      • retinoids
      • antimicrobial and antiparasitic agents
      • cytotoxic and immunologic therapy and antineoplastic drugs
    • other therapeutic modalities
    Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental
    • emotional and behavioral factors
    • influence on person, family, and society
    • occupational and other environmental risk factors
    • gender and ethnic factors

  5. Normal processes
    • embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes
    • organ structure and function
    • cell/tissue structure and function
      • biology of bones, joints, tendons, skeletal muscle
      • exercise and physical conditioning
    • repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life
    Abnormal processes
    • infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders
    • traumatic and mechanical disorders (including fractures, sprains, strains, dislocations, joint injuries, repetitive motion injuries, and impingement syndrome)
    • neoplastic disorders
    • metabolic, regulatory, and structural disorders (including osteomalacia, osteoporosis, osteodystrophy, gout, and pseudogout)
    • vascular disorders
    • systemic disorders affecting the musculoskeletal system
    • idiopathic disorders
    • degenerative disorders
    • drug-induced adverse effects on the musculoskeletal system
    • congenital and genetic disorders affecting the musculoskeletal system
    Principles of therapeutics
    • mechanisms of action and use of drugs for treatment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system
      • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics
      • muscle relaxants
      • antigout therapy
      • immunosuppressive and antineoplastic drugs
      • drugs affecting bone mineralization
      • antimicrobial and antiparasitic agents
    • other therapeutic modalities
    Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental
    • emotional and behavioral factors
    • influence on person, family, and society
    • occupational and other environmental risk factors
    • gender and ethnic factors

  6. Normal processes
    • embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes
    • organ structure and function
      • airways, including mechanics and regulation of breathing
      • lung parenchyma, including ventilation, perfusion, gas exchange
      • pleura
      • nasopharyx and sinuses
    • cell/tissue structure and function, including surfactant formation, alveolar structure
    • repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life
    • pulmonary defense mechanisms and normal flora
    Abnormal processes
    • infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders
      • infectious diseases
        • infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract
        • pyogenic infectious diseases of the lower respiratory tract and pleura, viral infections, and associated complications
        • other infectious diseases of the lower respiratory tract
      • immunologic disorders
        • allergic and hypersensitivity disorders
        • autoimmune disorders
      • inflammatory disorders
        • pneumoconioses
        • acute and chronic alveolar injury
        • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
        • restrictive pulmonary disease
    • traumatic and mechanical disorders
    • neoplastic disorders (including upper airway, lower airway and lung parenchyma, pleura, and metastatic tumors)
    • metabolic, regulatory, and structural disorders
    • vascular and circulatory disorders (including thromboembolic disease, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusion)
    • systemic disorders affecting the respiratory system
    • idiopathic disorders
    • degenerative disorders
    • drug-induced adverse effects on the respiratory system
    • congenital and genetic disorders affecting the respiratory system
    Principles of therapeutics
    • mechanisms of action and use of drugs for treatment of disorders of the respiratory system
      • decongestants, cough suppressants, expectorants, mucolytics
      • bronchodilator drugs
      • anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic drugs
      • antimicrobial agents and antiparasitic agents
      • antineoplastic agents
      • pulmonary vasodilators
    • other therapeutic modalities
    Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental
    • emotional and behavioral factors
    • influence on person, family, and society
    • occupational and other environmental risk factors
    • gender and ethnic factors

  7. Normal processes
    • embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes
    • organ structure and function
      • chambers, valves
      • cardiac cycle, mechanics, heart sounds, cardiac conduction
      • hemodynamics, including systemic, pulmonary, coronary, and blood volume
      • circulation in specific vascular beds
    • cell/tissue structure and function
      • heart muscle, metabolism, oxygen consumption, biochemistry, and secretory function
      • endothelium and secretory function, vascular smooth muscle, microcirculation, and lymph flow (including mechanisms of atherosclerosis)
      • neural and hormonal regulation of the heart, blood vessels, and blood volume, including responses to change in posture, exercise, and tissue metabolism
    • repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life
    Abnormal processes
    • infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders
    • traumatic and mechanical disorders
    • neoplastic disorders
    • metabolic and regulatory disorders (including dysrhythmias, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, low- and high-output heart failure, cor pulmonale, systemic hypertension, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, systemic hypotension and shock, and dyslipidemias)
    • vascular disorders
    • systemic diseases affecting the cardiovascular system
    • congenital and genetic disorders of the heart and central vessels
    • idiopathic disorders
    • drug-induced adverse effects on the cardiovascular system
    • degenerative disorders
    Principles of therapeutics
    • mechanisms of action and use of drugs for treatment of disorders of the cardiovascular system
      • coronary and peripheral vasodilators
      • antiarrhythmic drugs
      • antihypertensive drugs
      • measures used to combat hypotension and shock
      • drugs affecting cholesterol and lipid metabolism
      • drugs affecting blood coagulation, thrombolytic agents, and antiplatelet agents
      • inotropic agents and treatment of heart failure
      • immunosuppressive, antimicrobial, antineoplastic, and antiparasitic drugs
      • drugs to treat peripheral arterial disease
      • other pharmacotherapy
    • other therapeutic modalities
    Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental
    • emotional and behavioral factors
    • influence on person, family, and society
    • occupational and other environmental risk factors
    • gender and ethnic factors

  8. Normal processes
    • embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes
    • organ structure and function, including alimentary canal, liver and biliary system, salivary glands and exocrine pancreas, motility, and digestion and absorption
    • cell/tissue structure and function
      • endocrine and neural regulatory functions, including GI hormones
      • salivary, gastrointestinal, pancreatic, hepatic secretory products, including enzymes, proteins, bile salts, and processes
      • synthetic and metabolic functions of hepatocytes
    • repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life
    • gastrointestinal defense mechanisms and normal flora
    Abnormal processes
    • infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders
    • traumatic and mechanical disorders
      • malocclusion
      • hiatal hernia
      • obstruction
      • perforation of hollow viscus and blunt trauma
      • inguinal, femoral, and abdominal wall hernias
      • esophageal, intestinal, and colonic diverticula
    • neoplastic disorders, including benign and malignant
    • metabolic and regulatory disorders (including motility disorders, malabsorption, hepatic failure, cholelithiasis, nutritional disorders)
    • vascular disorders (including portal hypertension, esophageal varices, hemorrhoids, anal fissure, ischemia, angiodysplasia, thromboses, vasculitis)
    • systemic disorders affecting the gastrointestinal system
    • idiopathic disorders
    • degenerative disorders
    • drug-induced adverse effects on the gastrointestinal system
    • congenital and genetic disorders affecting the gastrointestinal system
    Principles of therapeutics
    • mechanisms of action and use of drugs for treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal system
      • treatment and prophylaxis of peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux
      • drugs to alter gastrointestinal motility
      • fluid replacement
      • pancreatic replacement therapy and treatment of pancreatitis
      • drugs for treatment of hepatic failure and biliary disease
      • anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, antineoplastic, antimicrobial, and antiparasitic drugs
    • other therapeutic modalities
    Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental
    • emotional and behavioral factors
    • influence on person, family, and society
    • occupational and other environmental risk factors
    • gender and ethnic factors

  9. Normal processes
    • embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes
    • organ structure and function
      • kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
      • glomerular filtration and hemodynamics
      • tubular reabsorption and secretion, including transport processes and proteins
      • urinary concentration and dilution
      • renal mechanisms in acid-base balance
      • renal mechanisms in body fluid homeostasis
      • micturition
    • cell/tissue structure and function, including renal metabolism and oxygen consumption, hormones produced by or acting on the kidney
    • repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life
    Abnormal processes
    • infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders
      • infectious disorders
        • upper urinary tract
        • lower urinary tract
      • inflammatory and immunologic disorders
        • glomerular disorders
        • tubular interstitial disease
    • traumatic and mechanical disorders
    • neoplastic disorders, including primary and metastases
    • metabolic and regulatory disorders
      • renal failure, acute and chronic
      • tubular and collecting duct disorders
      • renal calculi
    • vascular disorders
    • systemic diseases affecting the renal system
    • idiopathic disorders
    • degenerative disorders
    • drug-induced adverse effects on the renal/urinary system
    • congenital and genetic disorders affecting the renal/urinary system
    Principles of therapeutics
    • mechanisms of action and use of drugs for treatment of disorders of the renal and urinary system
      • diuretics, antidiuretic drugs
      • drugs and fluids used to treat volume, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders
      • drugs used to enhance renal perfusion
      • anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, immunosuppressive, antineoplastic, and antiparasitic drugs
      • drugs used to treat lower urinary tract system
    • other therapeutic modalities
    Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental
    • emotional and behavioral factors
    • influence on person, family, and society
    • occupational and other environmental risk factors
    • gender and ethnic factors

  10. Reproductive System
    Normal processes
    • embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes, including gametogenesis
    • organ structure and function
      • female structure, including breast
      • female function
      • male structure
      • male function
      • intercourse, orgasm
      • pregnancy, including ovulation, fertilization, implantation, labor and delivery, the puerperium, lactation, gestational uterus, placenta
    • cell/tissue structure and function, including hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, sex steroids, and gestational hormones
    • reproductive system defense mechanisms and normal flora
    Abnormal processes
    • infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders (female and male)
    • traumatic and mechanical disorders (female and male)
    • neoplastic disorders (including female reproductive, male reproductive, breast [including fibrocystic changes], trophoblastic disease)
    • metabolic and regulatory processes (female and male)
    • prenatal and perinatal counseling and screening
    • systemic disorders affecting reproductive function
    • disorders relating to pregnancy, the puerperium, and the postpartum period
      • obstetric problems
      • complications affecting other organ systems
      • disorders associated with the puerperium
      • antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum disorders of the fetus
    • idiopathic disorders
    • drug-induced adverse effects on the reproductive system
    • degenerative disorders
    • congenital and genetic disorders affecting the reproductive system
    Principles of therapeutics
    • mechanisms of action and use of drugs for treatment of disorders of the reproductive system and management of normal reproductive function
      • female reproductive tract
        • fertility drugs
        • oral contraception, other methods of contraception
        • estrogen, progesterone replacement, treatment of menopause
        • stimulants and inhibitors of labor
        • estrogen and progesterone antagonists
        • stimulators and inhibitors of lactation
      • male reproductive tract
        • fertility drugs
        • androgen replacement and antagonists
      • gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin replacement, including all gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists
      • abortifacients
      • antimicrobial and antiparasitic agents
      • antineoplastics
      • restoration of potency
    • other therapeutic modalities affecting the reproductive system
    Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental
    • emotional and behavioral factors
    • influence on person, family, and society
    • occupational and other environmental risk factors
    • family planning and pregnancy
    • gender identity, sexual orientation, sexuality, libido
    • effects of traumatic stress syndrome, violence, rape, child abuse

  11. Endocrine System
    Normal processes
    • embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes
    • organ structure and function
      • hypothalamus, posterior and anterior pituitary gland
      • thyroid gland
      • parathyroid glands
      • adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla
      • pancreatic islets
      • ovary and testis
      • adipose tissue
    • cell/tissue structure and function, including hormone synthesis, secretion, action, and metabolism
      • peptide hormones
      • steroid hormones, including vitamin D
      • thyroid hormones
      • catecholamine hormones
      • renin-angiotensin system
    • repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life
    Abnormal processes
    • infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders
    • traumatic and mechanical disorders
    • neoplastic disorders (including pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal cortex, pancreatic islets, neural crest, pheochromocytoma)
    • metabolic and regulatory processes (including diabetes mellitus, pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreatic islet disorders, adrenal disorders)
    • vascular disorders
    • systemic disorders affecting the endocrine system
    • idiopathic disorders
    • degenerative disorders
    • drug-induced adverse effects on the endocrine system
    • congenital and genetic disorders affecting the endocrine system
    Principles of therapeutics
    • mechanisms of action and use of drugs for treatment of disorders of the endocrine system
      • hormones and hormone analogs
      • stimulators of hormone production
      • inhibitors of hormone production
      • hormone antagonists
      • potentiators of hormone action
      • antiobesity agents
      • nonhormonal therapy for endocrine disorders
      • other treatment for diabetes
    • other therapeutic modalities
    Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental
    • emotional and behavioral factors
    • influence on person, family, and society
    • occupational and other environmental risk factors
    • gender and ethnic factors

  12. Immune System
    Normal processes
    • development of cells of the adaptive immune response, including positive and negative selection during immune development
    • structure, production, and function
      • granulocytes, natural killer cells, macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells, cell receptors
      • T lymphocytes, including T-lymphocyte receptors, accessory molecules, cell activation and proliferation, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and memory T lymphocytes
      • B lymphocytes and plasma cells, including B-lymphocyte receptors, immunoglobulins, cell activation and proliferation, including development of antibodies and memory B lymphocytes
      • structure and function of lymph nodes, host defense mechanisms, host barriers to infection, mucosal immunity
      • immunogenetics
      • Rh and ABO antigens, including genetics
    • cellular basis of the immune response and immunologic mediators
      • antigen processing and presentation in the context of MHC I and MHC II molecules, including distribution of MHC I and MHC II on different cells, mechanism of MHC I and MHC II deficiencies, and the genetics of MHC
      • regulation of the adaptive immune response
      • activation, function, and molecular biology of complement
      • function and molecular biology of cytokines
    • basis of immunologic diagnosis
    Abnormal processes
    • disorders with alterations in immunologic function
      • abnormalities in adaptive immune responses
      • deficiencies of phagocytic cells and natural killer cells
      • complement deficiency
      • HIV infection/AIDS
      • Non-HIV infections of lymphocytes
      • systemic diseases of immunologic function
      • systemic disorders affecting the immune system and the effect of age on the function of components of the immune system
    • immunologically mediated disorders
      • type I, type II, type III hypersensitivity
      • type IV hypersensitivity
      • transplantation risks and rejection, including transfusion reactions
      • isoimmunization, hemolytic disease of the newborn
    • drug-induced adverse effects on the immune system, including Jarisch-Herxheimer
    Principles of therapeutics
    • mechanisms of action and use of drugs that specifically affect immune function
      • vaccines (active and passive)
      • antiretrovirals
      • immunomodulating and antineoplastic drugs
      • biologics, including monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies
    • other therapeutic modalities
    Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental
    • emotional and behavioral factors
    • influence on person, family, and society
    • occupational and other environmental risk factors
    • gender and ethnic factors

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